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万博投注网址定价研究与定价优化

万博投注网址定价是市场研究的技术领域之一,是企业练习价值的价格的核心。万博官网manbet登录目的不是找到客户所喜欢的,但他们愿意支付的东西,所以识别最佳价格点that will maximise profit, revenue or market share.

市场背景下,定位和价格战略在设定价格中非常重要 - 您与您的价格一起尝试 - 赢得份额或最大限度地提高收入或利润?您打算如何构建销售和价值的定价。在商业市场中,“使用价值”或“总成本”可能比绝对价格更重要。

Price modelling and market modelsare a fundamental part of pricing research to estimate demand, price sensitivity, optimum points and competitor responses and to plan a pricing strategy to deliver maximum value.

定价研究有四种主要方法,Gabor-Granger技术,van We万博投注网址stendorp价格敏感监测,品牌价格权衡和联合分析(也称为离散选择分析)。一些技术可以使用现成的,许多公司销售品牌定价研究包,这只是其中一个技术的变化,但是选择正确的技术最终取决于您正在尝试解决的问题。万博投注网址发现我们的互动pricing explorer了解定价的业务影响。

Gabor-Granger.(direct pricing or likelihood of purchase estimation)

Gabor-Granger.is the simplest form of pricing research, named after the economists who invented it in the 1960s, and is also know as direct pricing. Customers are asked to complete a survey where they are asked to say if they would buy a product at a particular price. The price is changed and respondents again say if they would buy or not. The pricing question can vary from an open end - what is the maximum you would pay, to a pricing ladder working through a set of prices, to a likelihood of purchase scale, or asking about specific prices at random to avoid anchoring.

从答案中,为样本中的每个人建立最佳或最高价格。通过拍摄客户的样本,我们可以在整个市场上的每个价格点时锻炼需求水平(以下图表中的需求曲线)。

Using this estimate of demand, the price elasticity (or expected revenue) can be calculated and so the optimum price-point in the market established. Note that a revenue optimum may be different from a profit optimum. The ability to模型动态在定价研究中是非常有价值的,以估计收入和利润效应。

定价需求曲线显示收入优化A weakness of Gabor Granger is that customers may understate the price they will pay (there are also circumstances in which they will overstate the price). Consequently the phrasing of the "would you buy" question is extremely important as are other contextual questions to place the customer in the buying frame of mind.

通常,Gabor Granger仅在考虑一个孤立时使用时使用,而在现实生活中,他们将面临购买哪些产品的选择。对不同价格的竞争反应不能从Gabor Granger衡量,并且了解客户将支付的是有用的,但如果竞争对手较少提供相同的产品。

有各种各样的方法可以直接提出包括要求的问题,或者要求购买可能性的可能性。购买结果的可能性必须加权,以试图产生对占用潜在需求的估计。

van westendorp.Price Monitor

van Westendorp定价监视器输出称为直接定价的替代变化van westendorp.价格敏感性监测器。目的是为市场上的产品建立价格看法。受访者被问到四个问题来确定价格太便宜,如果价格昂贵,价格太贵了,价格是讨价还价。

通过绘制四个价格中的每一个的累积曲线,交叉点被认为是根据不同标准的最佳点。结果价格“空间”有助于确定可接受的价格范围 - 以及定价策略 - 可用。

通常,VW是一种更具价格定位型研究的技术,而不是估计最佳定价,与Gabor Granger一样,没有竞争因素,它假设受访者了解市场。它还没有直接衡量购买可能性。因此,van Westendorp通常与直接定价问题相结合,或用作联合分析或BPTO定价锻炼的起点。

Conjoint analysis

主要推荐的推荐市场研究用途万博官网manbet登录1manbext (also called Discrete Choice Modelling, or State Preference analysis) and has a strong reputation as being more robust and more reliable than other research techniques in assessing price sensitivity with fewer of the biases of direct pricing methods.

联合分析的焦点正在寻找如何选择具有不同价格的特定不同潜在产品规格的选择,从中获得价格和价格弹性的重要性或获得价格敏感性。

对于一些专家来说,联合分析是执行定价研究的唯一方法,特别是离散选择分析(联想子集)通常用于估计超市风格布局的品牌的价格弹性。万博投注网址然而,联合分析是一种更具技术的研究形式,需要更高的设计技能。如果要进行定价,则通常有利于将其作为广泛的联合研究的一部分进入产品和服务特征。

In1manbext ,客户兑换其他产品特色,单靠价格。通过观察客户如何做出决策,价格变化的经济影响可以评估为价格定位的“平衡价值”职位

来自联合分析的一个关键输出不仅仅是价格敏感度的衡量标准,而且还有一个市场模型that can be used to investigate both what the optimum is if nothing changes, but can also investigate competitor response and potential profitability by building in fixed and variable costs. In more dynamic pricing models such as transportation or leisure markets, these models can be used by yield managers to help guide ticket 'buckets' for time sensitive pricing

Brand Price Trade-offs (BPTO)

For brand specific studies measures of brand equity and category management品牌价格权衡研究(BPTO)can be used. Here customers evaluate products just using brand and price. In contrast to conjoint analysis, where prices are adjusted according to a randomised statistical plan, for BPTO prices are adjusted systematically increasing the price of the chosen products, up to the point at which customers stop purchasing.

从受访者的角度来看,BPTO通常更容易受访者遵循,因为他们可以看出根据其选择如何调整价格。然而,这也是部分缺点,因为它使受访者更容易游戏研究。通常,BPTO需要在调查设计中进行一些高级编程,并且必须进行编码和分析结果。

Like conjoint analysis, BPTO also products a market model allowing optimisation and what-if games to be played with varying price points

Behavioural economics

大多数价格研究方法假设定价以合理的方式处理。越来越多的行为经济学表明,对价格的反应可以被其他因素和定价选项的结构和介绍会影响选择。像锚定(使用一个价格来判断第二个价格)和框架的因素可能是重要的,特别是在产品范围内,每个项目的价格,而且在不同产品之间的相对价格也被考虑。

For some markets where prices are very visible, or where there is a large amount of internal pricing data, it is possible to use econometric methods to examine the impact of price and to understand price elasticities. Using pricing tests, discounts and advanced statistical analysis the impact of price can be assessed live in the real world.

The most common approach to pricing research is to rely on market intelligence and follow-my-leader type pricing using a competitor as a benchmark. However a me-too approach leads to high levels of competition, and it is important to consider the strategic impact of pricing as well as the short term sales impact.

进行定价研究时需要一些小心。在统计上讲,您希望优化您正在查看的价格相对较小的价格变化为5-10%,您需要大于正常的样本尺寸,以获得您需要的统计准确性。对于许多公司来说,这可以使定价研究昂贵,除非结合各种其他测量。万博投注网址

It is also important to consider psychological effects like anchoring in price research. The price-range shown and the first values shown can influence perceptions of what is appropriate, or cheap or expensive, particularly in markets where prices are largely unknown such as infrequently purchased or specialist goods.

Qualitative research

一般来说qualitative researchisnot recommendedfor pricing optimisation studies. Qualitative research can be useful when a price list or price structure has become too complex, but in general when you ask people about prices in a qualitative setting, prices are always too high, or not transparent, and respondents will tend to negotiate with the researcher so it is not possible to produce estimates of demand at different price points.

In B2B context, price might be a component part of a depth interview aimed at understanding value and satisfaction, and therefore help with tuning pricing within a key account context. However, aggregated data and demand curves are not possible from purely qualitative research.

我们提供了各种各样的研究和咨询服务,围绕定价方法,并可以帮助您通过关于找出客户价值的敏感问题,以及他们愿意支付的东西。

有关执行定价研究和设定定价策略的帮助和建议万博投注网址info@dobney.com.


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