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Pricing research and pricing optimisation

万博投注网址Pricing is one of the more technical areas of market research, and is central to businesses practising value-based pricing. The aim is not to find what customers like, but what they are willing to pay and so identify theoptimum price point这将使利润、收入或市场份额最大化。

Market context, positioning and price strategy are extremely important in setting prices - what are you trying to do with your prices - win share or maximise revenue or profits? And how are you planning to structure the pricing for sales and value. In business markets "value-in-use" or "total cost" may be more important than absolute price.


There are four main approaches to pricing research, the Gabor-Granger technique, van Westendorp Price Sensitivity Monitor, Brand Price Trade-off and Conjoint Analysis (also known as Discrete Choice Analysis). Some techniques can be used off-the-shelf and many companies sell branded pricing research packages that are just a variation on one of these techniques, however selecting the right technique ultimately depends on what the problem is you are trying to solve. Discover our interactive定价资源管理器to understand the business impact of pricing.



从最佳的答案,或最高价格established for each individual in the sample. By taking a sample of customers, we can work out what levels of demand would be expected at each price point across the market as a whole (the demand curve in the following graph).

利用这种需求估计,可以计算价格弹性(或预期收入),从而确定市场中的最佳价格点。注意,收益最优可能不同于利润最优。能够model dynamically是extremely valuable in pricing studies to estimate revenue and profit effects.

Pricing demand curve showing revenue optimisationGabor-Granger的一个缺点是,客户可能会低估他们将支付的价格(也有一些情况下,他们会夸大价格)。因此,“你愿意买”这个问题的措辞和其他上下文问题一样非常重要,可以将客户置于购买的思维框架中。

Typically, Gabor Granger is only used when considering one product in isolation, whereas in real life they would face a choice about which product to buy. Competitive response to different prices cannot be gauged from Gabor Granger and knowing customers what would pay is useful, but not if competitors are offering the same product for less.

There are a variety of ways of asking the questions including asking for a price directly, or asking for a rating of likelihood to buy. Likelihood to buy results have to be weighted to try to produce an estimate of take-up as they commonly overestimate potential demand.

Van Westendorp价格监视器

van Westendorp Pricing Monitor outputAn alternative variation on direct pricing is calledVan Westendorpprice sensitivity monitor. The aim is to establish price perceptions for a product in a market. Respondents are asked four questions to determine what prices are too cheap, where a price is a bargain, when a price is expensive and where a price is too expensive.

By plotting the cumulative curves for each of the four prices, the crossing points are deemed to be optimum points according to different criteria. The resultant price "space" helps to determine the range of acceptable prices - and so pricing tactics - available.

Typically, vW is a technique which is more for price positioning type studies than for estimating optimum pricing, as with the Gabor Granger, there is no competitive element and it assumes respondents know the market. It also gives no direct measure of likelihood to buy. For this reason the van Westendorp is often combined with direct pricing questions, or used as a starting point for a conjoint analysis or BPTO pricing exercise.


The main recommended market research technique for pricing uses1manbext (也称为离散选择模型,或状态偏好分析),在评估价格敏感性方面比其他研究技术更稳健、更可靠,且直接定价方法的偏差较少。

The focus of Conjoint analysis is looking how choices are made from a given set of different potential product specifications with different prices, from which the importance of price and price elasticity or price sensitivity obtained.

对于一些专家,联合分析是辊筒y way of carrying out pricing research, and in particular Discrete Choice Analysis (a subset of conjoint) is often used to estimate price elasticities for brands in supermarket style layouts. However, conjoint analysis is a more technical form of research and requires higher levels of design skills. If pricing is to be conducted it is often advantageous to include it as part of a broad conjoint study into product and service features.

1manbext , customers trade off price against other product features, price against brand alone. By looking at how customers make decisions, economic impact of price changes can be assessed as can 'balanced-value' positions for price positioning

A key output from the conjoint analysis is not just what the measures of price sensitivity are, but also amarket model这既可以用来调查什么是最佳的,如果没有任何变化,但也可以调查竞争对手的反应和潜在的盈利能力,建立在固定和可变成本。在更具动态性的定价模型(如交通或休闲市场)中,收益经理可以使用这些模型来帮助指导票“桶”的时间敏感定价


品牌资产和品类管理的具体研究方法Brand Price Trade-off Studies (BPTO)可以使用。在这里,顾客仅仅用品牌和价格来评价产品。与根据随机统计计划调整价格的联合分析不同,BPTO系统地调整价格,提高所选产品的价格,直至客户停止购买。

From a respondent point of view, BPTO is often easier for respondents to follow as they can see how prices are being adjusted depending on their choices. However, this is also partly a downside as it makes it easier for respondents to game the research. Typically BPTO requires some advanced programming in survey design and care has to be taken coding and analysing the outcomes.



Most price research approaches assume that pricing is dealt with in a rational manner. Increasingly behavioural economics shows that reactions to prices can be conditioned by other factors and the structure and presentation of pricing options will affect choice. Factors like anchoring (using one price to judge a second price) and framing can be important, particularly in product ranges where there are both price per item, but also relative prices between different products to be considered.



Some caution is needed when conducting pricing studies. Statistically speaking, where you are looking to optimise prices where you are looking at relatively small price changes of 5-10%, you will need larger than normal sample sizes to get the statistical accuracy you need. For many companies this can make pricing research expensive, unless combined with a range of other measurement.





We offer a full range of research and consultancy services around approaches to pricing and can help guide you through the sensitive questions about finding out what customers value, and what they are willing to pay for.

For help and advice on carrying out pricing research and setting pricing strategies

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