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Market segmentation

X25_1_segmentation_9601.jpgMarket segmentation is concerned with identifying different groups of purchasers in a market in order to target specific products and services for each group or segment. By tailoring the offering (communication, product, channel, price) to different groups, a business is better able to meet the needs of more customers, and consequently to gain a higher overall level of share or profit from a market.

The process of segmentation starts with research and market analysis to identify key segments. However, the findings of the research are just the start. To be successful, implementing a segmentation strategy involves aligning the organisation to deliver appropriately for each segment and there are realbusiness considerations with segmentationto be considered because each segment requires investment if it is to be properly addressed.

分割是营销的主要要素。最简单的是,它涉及寻找具有不同偏好的小组以及不同愿意支付和创造产品的愿望和提供这些不同的群体的产品 - 更好地匹配您对市场所需的所需的产品。

Segmentation is often used to describe the process of finding the segments. This can be through market or survey research, or through database or other data analysis. However, it is also important to realise that segmentation also involves using the groups for business development. As such, it normally comes with a cost and complexity overhead so segments need to be robust, replicable and have sufficient potential sales volume to make them worth addressing.


Important questions are therefore how are you going to place customers into each group and how are you going to target and track each group. Do you leave it up to the customer to select themselves into a segment, or do you have specific segment sales managers?


A-priori (pre-existing) segments are the most basic way of creating market segments. In A-priori segmentation, the market is split according to pre-existing demographic criteria such as age, sex or social economic status, or other criteria available, particularly if using databases or lists as a starting point.

More sophisticated versions include lifestage (which combines information about age, presence of children and working status) and geodemographics such as Experian's Mosaic or CACI's Acorn classification systems where households are allocated to specific clusters on the basis of typical household make up and housing type. For website analysis, segments can include country, browser type, or previous history.

先验segments are easy to define and easy to target with advertising and media. For some sectors, for instance technology, there are such strong relationships between age and use, thata priorisegments are all that are needed. However in other markets - for instance drinks, it is more difficult to use pre-existing variables for segmentation.


However, although better than pure mass marketing, even the most sophisticated a priori systems are quite crude. In geodemographics there is the assumption that you buy or think the same way as your neighbour which is clearly not always the case.


A usage segmentation is based on prior behaviour. There are two main approaches: firstly customers can be split according to their weight of use, or weight of purchase - heavy users/buyers being more important targets than light users for most businesses.

The usage history can then be used to tailor products or services, for instance tiering extra services, or account management for the larger purchaser groups.

在客户数据库上进行简单的交易历史记录或访问历史记录,或者可以使用根据销售权重,购买价值,访问数等的重量来拆分数据库的历史记录。Decile分析将用户分成10个均匀编号的组,哪个帕累托分析从底部80%拆分20%。这通常用于business-to-business marketsand is a core part of数据库分析for consumer markets.

Secondly, usage can be considered in terms of time and place. A咖啡店might sell sandwiches at lunchtime but main meals in the evening because the purchasers are looking for different things. It may even be the same purchaser just in a different "mode".

使用研究在市场研究中也非常常见,但通常可以确定市场份额等措施万博官网manbet登录市场指标。However this information can also be used as the basis of a segmentation approach - checking heavy versus light user groups for different attitudes or behaviours.

Often usage segmentation is used to try and establish underlying driving forces from other demographic variables. So if women are more likely to be heavy users would it be easier to convert more light users who are female, rather than target their male counterparts. This focusing of market activity on groups that are similar to heavy users gives rise to measures such as "uplift" - the improvement possible over a purely random approach.

3. Attitudinal research and cluster analysis

When market research is used for usage studies, it is also often accompanied by attitudinal research - what do customers think or believe about the category in question. This is commonly achieved through banks of agree-disagree scales or ratings out of 5,7 or 10. The aim of these studies is not just to understand commonalities in opinion, but also what makes one group of users different from another.

了解态度如何影响购买统计技术such as "cluster analysis" are used where people with similar attitudes are combined together. For instance grouping those for whom the environment is important separately from those who think price is more important.

This information can then be used to target groups by what they think and how they feel, rather than just who they are. This is particularly valuable in determiningbranding strategiesand keeping a brand in tune with consumers.

然而,态度集群不容易to database or conventional media targeting which are more often than not based on demographics. The translation from attitudes to demographics means that some of the usefulness of an attitudinal segmentation is lost. Companies can reach different attitudinal groups by offering a range of products and a range of communication, but clearly the lack of a clear definition means cross-over between the targeting of segments.

态度分组也遭受一些问题s with regard to their robustness and replicability. Cluster analysis cannot be carried out in the field so scoring systems (similar to credit scoring) or surrogate measures and variables are needed to allocate individuals to a group. These additional measures can be guessed at, but normally need to be defined and tested post-hoc. Repeating attitudinal analysis successfully can be very difficult and expensive.

随着一些视图变得时尚或不合时宜,态度组也可能会改变或移动。可以找到快速消失或被事件取代的分段(想象音乐市场)。还有关于态度如何变化的争论 - 是它是创造态度的广告和产品,或者态度是否导致特定产品的选择。特别是在不同情况或模式中的单个个体可以适合于不同的段。在单一维度研究中捕获这种复杂性很难。

Nonetheless, attitudinal clustering remains one of the most common forms of research-type segmentation. If you find different attitude groups - for instance an environmentalist group versus a buy by price group, there can be very clear distinct differences in messages, distribution and product for genuinely different attitude groups.



基于需求的大多数基于需求的分割用途1manbext 将类别分成不同的功能性能水平(参见Conjoint Design)。By understanding what elements are key drivers for individuals, specific needs and requirements can be identified from the trade-offs that each person makes. Using cluster analysis, this information can be drawn together to find different segments with similar preferences and needs from the product category in question.


However, like attitudinal studies, because cluster analysis is used, targeting each of the underlying groups can be difficult.

Nonetheless you also have the benefit of being able to produce a market model or market simulation using the Conjoint output.

5. Other forms of segmentation

这四种方法描述了分割市场的主要方法,也可以采取替代方法。例如,使用事件或行为分割对于在线运营的企业更容易更常见。例如,电子商务系统将设计为不同类型客户的不同路由 - 从快速优惠为想要速度的买家,更详细地阅读这些浏览和考虑。这可以包括通过情绪或事件来定位 - 例如,专注于买家在急剧上的便利,或者专注于寻找款待的客户的演示和包装。

Choosing a technique

The type of segmentation you use will depend on a lot of factors including the cost not only of conducting the research, but also of implementing the solution and the投资业务想要制作。因此,理想情况下,您要知道每个部分或团体,每个群体的经济价值和经济潜力是什么,并且有一些想法,这是否正在增加或跌倒。因此,大多数定量分割研究都是详细和复杂的。

Mixed approaches

In practice, a good segmentation will include several different levels of analysis and validation. Since segmentation have to be strong and clearly defined, a cost-effective approach is to develop groups based on定性研究。Typically a business wants to minimise the number of segments it has as each costs money to target properly (database marketing and digital printing techniques allow for far finer targeting without too much additional cost). With small numbers of big segments, a good researcher will be able to identify these groups within a programme of qualitative research. This will not gather economic data, but it enables deeper insight into each group and, if monitored over time, provides core information about how segments change and develop.


For advice on the best type of segmentation approach for your market

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